Zelinsky's migration transition model UPSC

As per Zelinsky, migration of any country or region is dependent on the following two factors:
  • Development of the sources and destination places.
  • Types of the society of the source and destination places.




The main idea of the migration transition model of Zelinsky is taken from the demographic transition model.
As per Zelinsky, the following are the five stages of migration:

Stage 1: (Premodern traditional society):

The following are the characteristics of these stages:
  • High birth rate and high death rate; the natural growth of the population is zero.
  • No international migration
  • High level of nomadism, people move to the search for food for survival.


Stage 2: (Early transitional society)


The following are the characteristics of these stages:
  • High birth rate and low death rate; rapid population growth.
  • The source region is in process of modernization.
  • Migration is mainly for jobs.
  • High migration from rural to urban
  • High emigration


Stage 3: (late transitional society)


The following are the characteristics of these stages:
  • Low birth and low death rate.
  • High economic development
  • More immigration than emigration




Stage 4. Advanced society


The following are the characteristics of these stages:
  • Urban to suburban migration in search of a peaceful life and a clean environment.
  • Stable population



Stage 5. Future super-advanced society


The following are the characteristics of these stages:
  • Declining population trends
  • Urban to suburban migration
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