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Consequence of migration | Migration problems UPSC |Cultural Setting | Geography of India

 Migration is the lt of uneven distribution of opportunity over space. It creates both benefits and problems for both source and destination areas.

The following are consequences:

  • Economic consequence
  • Demographic consequence
  • Social consequence
  • Environmental consequence

Economic consequence:

The following are economic consequences.

  • Source region gets remittances from migrants.
  • Punjab, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu receive a significant amount of international remittances.
  • Internal remittances are very less compared to international remittances.
  • Remittances play important role in the source region for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriage, children's education, agriculture inputs, and house construction.
  • UP, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh's villages get benefitted from internal remittances.
  • Punjab, Haryana, and western Up benefitted from labor in the green revolution.
  • Unregulated migration in the sources region causes overcrowding. Slum areas in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Delhi, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka are examples of the negative consequence of unregulated migration.

Demographic consequence:

The following are demographic consequences:

  • Migration leads to redistribution of the population within the country and States.
  • Rural to urban migration leads to the growth of cities.
  • Selective migration of age and skill leads to adverse Demographic effects in both rural and urban areas.
  • Serious imbalance of age sex composition in Uttrakhand, Rajasthan, Eastern Maharashtra, MP, and Bihar.

Social consequence:

The following are social consequences:

  • Migrants act as agents of social change.
  • New ideas such as new technology, family planning, and gild education get diffused from urban to rural areas.
  • Migration leads to the intermixing of people from diverse cultures.
  • Positive contributions, the evolution of composite culture takes place.
  • Negative consequences, anonymity, sense of dejection amongst individuals, people fall into the trap of anti-social activities such as crime a d drug abuses.

Environmental consequence:

The following are environmental consequences of migration:

  • Overcrowding puts pressure on existing social and physical infrastructure in urban areas.
  • It leads to the unplanned growth of settlements and slums
  • Overexploitation of natural resources such as groundwater depletion, air pollution, disposal of sewage, and management of solid waste.

Try to solve the following questions:

  • Discuss the causes and consequences of population migration. ( UPSC 2000)
  • Impact of migration on urban demography (UPSC 2012)

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