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Ravenstein law of migration UPSC

In 1885, Ravensien was the first to generalize the migration pattern based on the birthplace in Britain during that time. This generalization of migration is named the " law of migration ".
As per Ravensien, there are three basic factors of migration:
  • Motive
  • Distance
  • Migrants composition

The motive behind the migration may be economic, better security, political, cultural, marriage, or social.

How far do migrants want to travel?

Migrants composition:
Such as gender, and age. Culture, etc.

Based on the above three factors, Ravenstein gave the following 9 generalized views of the law of migration:

  • Distance decay model or inverse relationship between distance and volume of migration.
    • Support: 
      • Large migration happened in the nearest city.
    • Criticism:
      •  A large number of Indians prefer to go to the USA as compared to China despite long-distance.
  • Step migration.
    • Support:
      • Generally, it has been seen the following pattern; Village--> Town--> City-->Mega City
    • Criticism: 
      • A large number of a villager from Bihar directly migrates to West Asia
  • Every migration produces a counter-current
    • Support:
      • India gets large remittances from abroad.
    • Criticism:
      • This is not true in the case of permanent migration.
  • Female is more flexible in-migration than male.
  • Migration is age-specific
  • Migration mostly happened because of economic reasons
    • Criticism: 
      • Rohingya and Syrian migrants are not because of economic reasons but insecurity.
      • The large infusion of migration in India during the 1950s was not for economic reasons.
  • Migration is the main reason for the population growth of a large city than natural birth.
  • The majority of migrants are young
  • More Migration happened in rural areas as compared to urban areas.
Try to solve the following questions:
  • Critically examine the theories of population migration. (2015 UPSC )
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