Mention the preventive and curative measures to contain problems of flood-prone and drought-prone areas of Bihar

 Question.

Mention the preventive and curative measures to contain problems in flood-prone and drought-prone areas of Bihar. ( 63rd BPSC, 2019) 

Answer.

As far as the flood-affected area of ​​Bihar is concerned, Bihar accounts for 16.5% of the flood-affected area of ​​India and it is approx. 73% of the total geographical area of ​​Bihar. For this reason, Bihar is the most flood-affected state in the country. The main reason for flooding in such a large area is the geographical location and relief nature of Bihar. The entire area of ​​Bihar is almost flat and it is situated in the Terai region. The major flood-producing rivers are the Mahananda River, Kosi, Bagmati River, Gandak, etc. The river originates from the Himalayan river and they bring with them a lot of water and silt from Nepal and the Himalayas.

Preventive Measures for Redressal of Flood Problems:

  • Providing pucca houses for all families.
  • The house and other infrastructure should be built in a high area.
  • Embankment of the river so that the water cannot flow out easily.

Curative measures to tackle the problem of the flood:

Contour canal construction for each flood generating river.

As we know that Kosi river is famous for changing its course each year. 95% of the Kosi river's water flow through the new channel. We have to build a Contour canal across Bihar on all flood generating rivers which is technically possible. In this way, contour canals have been built in other countries like Britain. With this, we will be able to stabilize the direction of the river. An artificial system should also be installed to remove the silt from the canal so that the silt does not block the canal.

Afforestation:

  • Bihar has very little forest cover (about 7%). There is a need for massive afforestation to reduce the erosional activities that cause shallowing of the river bed.

River siltation:

  • The Himalaya River brings a large amount of silt from Nepal and the Himalayan region, which makes the river shallow. An artificial system should be installed to remove the silt from the river at the time it enters Bihar.

Drought affected areas of Bihar:

The south and south-western parts of Bihar are prone to drought. Some of the drought-affected districts are Munger, Nawada, Bhojpur, Aurangabad, Gaya, etc.

preventive Measures of Drought Affected Areas:

  • Maintain a buffer stock of food grains and fodder and use it during drought.
  • Crops that consume more water should not be grown.
  • Water wastage should be minimized.

Curative  measures for drought-prone areas of Bihar:

  • Rejuvenation of the traditional rainwater systems of 
  • Rainwater harvesting at the household level.
  • Promote watershed management.
  • Large scale afforestation.
  • Use of latest irrigation technology like sprinkle and drip

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