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Fundamental Duties of Citizens were added to the Constitution of India by the:

The Fundamental Duties of Citizens were added to the Constitution of India by the:

a) 51st Amendment Act

b) 23rd Amendment Act

c) 42nd Amendment Act

d) 1st Amendment Act

Answer. c) 42nd Amendment Act

Important Constitutional Amendment Acts ( CAA):

1st CAA: The 9th Schedule related to "No Judicial Review" was added in 1951.

7th CAA 1956, State Reorganization Act. One governor and one high Court can be for two or more states

42nd CAA 1976: It is known as the Mini Constitution. Fundamental Duties were added. Socialist, Secular, and Integrity were added in the Preamble. Five lists from states namely Education, weight and measures, forest, protection of wild animals, and Administrative justice were placed on the concurrent list.

44th CAA 1979, Property right was removed from Fundamental rights and placed as a constitutional right under Article 300 A.

51st CAA: Reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha for Scheduled Tribes

61st CAA 1988: Reduction of Voting rights from 21 to 18.

73rd CAA 1992: Panchayati Raj Institution

74th CAA 1992: Municipalities

86th CAA 2002: Elementary education 21 A, Education provisions in Article 45, and Article 51 A(11)

91st CAA, 2003:  The total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha. The same is the case for the State Government.

100th CAA 2015: Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh

101st CAA 2016: GST

102nd CAA, 2018: Article 338B - National Commission for Backward Classes.

103rd CAA, 2019: EWS, 10 % reservation.

104th, 2019: Ceased the reservation of seats for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies.

105th CAA, 2021: It restored the power of State governments to recognize Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC)

106th CAA 2023: Reserves one-third of all seats for women in Lok Sabha and State legislative assemblies.

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