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Stone Age Era of Uttar Pradesh | Prehistoric Era of Uttar Pradesh | History, Civilization, Culture, and Ancient Cities of UP | UPPSC General Studies ( GS)-V

 Prehistory Era or Stone Age Era of Uttar Pradesh:

The prehistoric period is commonly known as the Stone Age or Paleolithic Age as stone tools were commonly used for hunting and gathering in the prehistoric period.

We do not have any written record of human civilization of the prehistoric era because at that time the script (script) was not invented and people did not know how to write.

Robert Bruce Foote ( 1834 to 1912) is known as the father of India's Prehistory as he was the first person to discover the Paleolithic tools at Pallavaram, Chennai in 1863.

Stone Age is further divided into three parts:

  • Paleolithic Era ( 2 million BC to 10,000 BC)
  • Mesolithic Era  ( 10,000 BC to 8,000 BC)
  • Neolithic Era ( 8,000 BC to 4,000 BC)

Paleolithic Age of Uttar Pradesh:

The time of Paleolithic history lies between 2 million BC to 10,000 BC. The major characteristics of the Paleolithic era as as follows:

  • Paleolithic humans were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers who depended on hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants for food.
  • Stone tools were used for hunting and food gathering.
  • Paleolithic communities live in caves or temporary shelters.
  • Fire was invented in the lower Paleolithic period.

As far as Paleolithic sites of Uttar Pradesh are concerned, Belan Valley ( Prayagraj ), Singrauli ( Sonbhadra), and Chakia ( Chandauli) are three important paleolithic sites of Uttar Pradesh. 

Govardhan Rai Sharma (1919-1986) was a Historian from Allahabad University who played a key role in the discovery of prehistoric sites in Uttar Pradesh. 

Belan Valley: 

Belan River is a tributary of the Ton River ( Ton River is a tributary of Yamuna River) which flows in three districts of Uttar Pradesh namely Sonbhadra, Mirzapur, and Prayagraj. 

The remains of the Palaeolithic era have been found in Chopani Mando and Lohada Nala, which are located in the Belan Valley.

Evidence of Human occupation dating back to the lower Paleolithic period is found in the Chopani Mando.

The carved and polished bone object is found in the Lohda Nala which is located in Belan Valley, Uttar Pradesh. This bone object has been described as a "mother goddess". 

Mesolithic Era of Uttar Pradesh:

The Mesolithic period is also known as the Middle Stone Age. The time of Mesolithic history lies between 10,000 BC to 8,000 BC. 

The Mesolithic period is the transition period between the Paleolithic (Hunter-gatherer society) and Neolithic ( settled humans and agricultural society).

Although, Mesolithic humans continued to be dependent on hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plants. However, they developed more efficient hunting techniques, such as the use of small and polished stone tools.

Mesolithic humans began experimenting with the domestication of certain plants and animals. 

The following are Mesolithic regions of Uttar Pradesh:

  • Morhana Pahar rock shelter ( Mirzapur)
  • Chopani Mando, Meja, Karchana, and Phulpur ( Prayagraj)
  • Mahdaha, Sarai Nahar Rai, and Damdama ( Pratapgarh)

Chopani Mando ( Prayagraj):

Chopani Mando ( Prayagraj) is a Mesolithic that was discovered in 1967 by G R Sharma. It is located in Belan Valley.

In Chopani Mando, huts and earthen pots have been found. It proves the use of fire in cooking. 

Mahdaha ( Pratapgarh): 

G R Sharma discovered the Mahadaha sites in 1966, he was a professor at Allahabad University.

28 human skeletons have been found here.

Jewelry made of bones and horns of deer has been found in Mahadaha.

Sarai Nahar Rai ( Pratapgarh):

It was discovered in 1968. The remains of human skeletons ( 15 total human skeletons) are found in Sarai Nahar Rai ( Pratapgarh district). 

  • This is one of the largest skeletal series of Mesolithic hominids discovered in India. 
  • All human skeletons lie in the east-west direction. The head of the dead person is towards the west side.  
  • The pair of four dead in one grave is also found in Sarai Nahar Rai. 


Three human skeletons in a single grave were recovered at Damdama, Pratapgarh, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 42 human skeletons are found here.

Neolithic history of Uttar Pradesh:

Neolithic age is also known as New Stone Age. In this period, humans had learned to build huts and do agriculture. 

Koldihwa and Mahagara are two neolithic sites, both located in Belan Valley, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh.

Lahuradeva is also a neolithic site which is located in Sant Kabir Nagar.

About Koldihwa:

Koldihwa is famous for the archaeological evidence of rice and fragmentary bones. 

The earliest evidence of rice cultivation in the world is found in Koldihwa.

About Mahagara:

Many strata of circular huts along with crude handmade pottery are found in Mahagara.


Lahuradeva is a Neolithic site ( 8000 BC) in Sant Kabir Nagar. It provides evidence of rice cultivation. It provides the oldest evidence of ceramics in South Asia.

Try to solve the following MCQ:

1. Belan Valley in Uttar Pradesh is famous for?

a) Paleolithic site

b) Mesolithic site

c) Neolithic site

d) All of the above

Answer. d) All of the above

2. The Kaimur region of Mirzapur Uttar Pradesh is famous for?

a) Paleolithic site

b) Chalcolithic site

c) Mesolithic site

d) Neolithic site

Answer. c) Mesolithic site

3. Koldihwa and Mahagara near Praygraj of Uttar Pradesh are famous for?

a) Paleolithic site

b) Chalcolithic site

c) Mesolithic site

d) Neolithic site

Answer. d) Neolithic site

4. Which neolithic site provides the evidence of circular huts and the oldest evidence of rice in the world?

a) Koldihwa and Mahagara ( Uttar Pradesh)

b) Mehrgarh ( Pakistan)

c) Burzahom (Kashmir)

d) Belan Valley ( Uttar Pradesh)

Answer. a) Koldihwa and Mahagara ( Uttar Pradesh)

5. Evidence of Paleolithic civilization in Uttar Pradesh has been found in---

a) Belan Valley

b) Singarauli Valley

c) Chakia of Chandauli

d) All of the above

Answer. d) All of the above

6. The idol of Mother Goddess made of bone has been found in the

a) Koldihwa

b) Mahagara

c) Lohda Nala

d) Sarai Nahar Rai

Answer. c) Lohda Nala


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