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Growth centers and growth poles UPSC

Growth is not ubiquitous in nature, it does not happen everywhere. The growth of the region starts from points, centers, and poles.

Growth points

First, the growth of a region starts from points with very basic consumer goods industries such as food processing industries, small textiles, handicrafts, and small steel plants. Growth points are the third rank cities of geographical region.
For example, from 1960 to 1980:

  • The growth point of the Jharkhand region was Bokaro, Dhanbad, and Ranchi.
  • The growth point of Chhatisgarh was Bhilai, Raipur
  • The growth point of Uttar Pradesh was Kanpur, Allahabad, and Renukoot.

Growth center

Bauldevile develops the concept of a growth center. A growth center is a place that provides goods & services to the surrounding population. It is an American concept having local geographical or regional significance. Not much investment is required as compared to the growth pole but is closely linked to the development of the growth pole. 
Over time, centrifugal force works around the growth points, it attracts capital, brain, people, a technology from the surrounding region and it becomes the growth center of the surrounding region.
growth center is a second rank city in the geographical region. In the growth center, dominant activities are secondary and tertiary activities. Large firms and many activities can be seen in the growth center.
cities that were growth points from 1960 to 1970, now become the growth center of the region. For example, Bokaro steel city is the growth center of the Jharkhand region.

Growth poles

The growth pole is a french idea of the economic construct which has national significance. Huge capital is needed for very large-scale production. Many growth centers existed in one growth pole. The concept of growth poles was given by French geographer Perroux in 1955. Growth poles are the first-rank cities where the agglomeration of many activities can be seen.
Diffusion and spread of the effects of economic activities from growth poles, it reduces regional inequality.
For example, the growth poles of India are Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, and Chennai. Due to the spread-out effect and diffusion of economic activities many satellite towns ( growth centers) developed around growth poles. Delhi has many satellite towns such as Gurgaon, Meruth, Gaziabad, etc.

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