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Rimland theory by Spykman UPSC

In 1942, Spykman gave the Rimland theory and criticized the Heartland theory of Mackinder.

Spykman criticized Mackinder for overemphasizing the importance of Heartland such as mountain fortification and having vast land. He also criticized the supremacy of land power over sea power.

As per Spykman, the following are the opposite views on heartland:

  • Heartland is comprised of an agrarian society.
  • Lack of communication in the heartland is a hindrance to development. The obstacle to transportation such as ice, mountains, freezing temperatures, and harsh climate is found in the heartland.

As per Spykman:
Rimland is a strip of coastal land around Eurasia. It includes the UK, western Europe, West Asia, Indian subcontinents, Southeast Asia, Japan, and Eastern China.

According to Spykman, Rimland is more important than the heartland in order to control the power of Eurasia's continents.

As per Skykman, whoever controls the Rimland will have control of the whole Eurasia continents and that will have control of the world.

Useful of this theory:
  • During the Cold War,  the USA and USSR tried to control eastern Europe and the inner crescent landmass.
  • Theory ignored the importance of outer crescent countries such as America and Australia.
  • This theory ignored the conflict between Israel & Arabs, Iran & Saudi Arabia, and India & Pakistan
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