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Contribution of German Geographers in the field of geography

 The following are German geographers who contributed a lot to the evolution of geographical thought.

  • Immanuel Kant
  • Bernhardus Varenius
  • Carl Ritter
  • Alexander Humboldt
  • Alfred Hettner
  • Friedrich Ratzel
  • W Penck landform development
  • Wladimir Koppen climate classification
  • Christaller 's central place theory

German geographers, mostly 18th and 19th centuries contributed a lot to geography and they provided the philosophical and scientific base for geography.

Contribution of Immanuel Kant to geography:

  • Immanuel Kant provided the philosophical basis of geography and they related geography to natural sciences.
  • Immanuel Kant proposed the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the universe.

Contribution of Bernhardus Varenius in geography:

  • Varenius was the first geographer who differentiates physical and human geography.


Contribution of Carl Ritter to geography:

  • Carl Ritter was the founder of modern geography, he believed geography is an integrated part of scientific discipline. He also believed that God created the earth and made the environment for human habitat.
  • Carl Ritter also published a map of Africa and Europe.


Contribution of Alexander Humboldt to geography:

  • Humboldt and Carl Ritter, both were founders of modern geography.
  • His unique contributions are:
  • Relationship between rainfall and forest growth.
  • Drawing isotherms on the world map.
  • Permafrost, the term was coined by Humboldt first time. 


Contribution of Alfred Hettner to geography:

  • Hettner defined Geography as studies of the differences in phenomena usually related to different parts of the earth’s surface. He believed geography is the study of geographical distributions on the earth's surface.

Contribution of Friedrich Ratzel to geography:

  • Friedrich Ratzel opposed the Deterministic thought of geography, he believed that two ethnic groups in the same location may have different living standards.  The same environment has a different meaning for different people based on family background and culture. 
  • Friedrich Ratzel supported the scientific study of geographical thought.

Contribution of Walter Penck to geography:

W Penck contributed to the geomorphology field. He gave the cycle of erosion. Walter Penck was a German geographer, he studied the Davis erosional cycle model and agreed most of Davis's thoughts, but disagreed on the process and stages components ( i.e trio of Davis are the structure, process, and stages) of Davis erosional model.  Penck rejected that stage is not sequential and there may be interrupted by rejuvenation

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