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UPSC 2021 Geography Optional Question Paper[Solved]

Geography [ Paper-I] [ 3 hours 250 marks]


1. Answer the following in about 150 words each: ( 10*5=50 Marks)

1. (a) Describe the concept of "Altiplanation".

उच्चस्थ समतलन (अल्टीप्लेनेसन) अवधारणा का वर्णन कीजिए।

1. (b) What are the important factors responsible for Airmass modifications?

वायु संहति रूपांतरण हेतु उत्तरदायी महत्वपूर्ण कारक क्या हैं ?

1. (c) Discuss the hazards associated with the rise of sea surface temperature.

सागर-सतह के तापमान में वृद्धि से सम्बंधित संकटों की विवेचना कीजिए। 

1. (d) Gene pool centers are a " Good Hope" for biodiversity conservation. Elucidate.

जीन कोश केंद्र जैवविविधिता संरक्षण के लिये "अच्छी आशा " है। स्पष्ट कीजिए। 

1. (e) Describe How ecosystem services of Himalaya are essential for Highland-Lowland sustainability in Asia.

एशिया में उच्चभूमि -निम्नभूमि की स्थिरता के लिए हिमालय की पारिस्थितिकीय सेवायें कैसे जरुरी हैं , वर्णन कीजिए। 

2. (a) The concept of Plate Techtonics has been derived from the Isostasy and Continental Drift Theory. Elaborate citing suitable examples. ( 250 words, 20 Marks)

2. (b) Give a detailed account of the bottom topography of the Pacific Ocean. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

2. (c) Soil erosion and Soil degradation are threats to the food supply. Discuss. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

3. (a) Examine major influencing factors for varied patterns of precipitations on the continents. ( 250 words, 20 Marks)

3. (b) Maritime security is being neglected. Indicate the major challenges and suggest solutions in the context of the Law of Sea. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

3. (c) Explaining the concept of carbon neutrality, describe the measures taken by carbon positive and negative nations. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

4. (a) With suitable examples, elaborate human ecological adaptations. Explain its impacts on ecology and the environment in various parts of the world. ( 250 words, 20 Marks)

4. (b) Stream basins and drainage divides are important components to delineate a watershed area. Explain. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

4. (c) Indicating the causes of lightning, describe the threats associated with it. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)


5. Answer the following in about 150 words each: ( 10 *5=50 words)

5. (a) The interrelationships between the social and spatial structure are complex. Explain in the context of socio-spatial dialectic. 

5. (b) How is energy transition seen as an instrument for achieving zero carbon by 2050?

5. (c) Protected cultivation assists in healthier and larger produce. Justify with examples.

5. (d) Explain the processes of contagion and hierarchical diffusion in addressing regional imbalances.

5. (e) Examine the relevance of the Central Place Theory of Christaller in the present context.

6. (a) Development-induced displacement poses serious challenges. Mention its causes, consequences, and solutions. ( 250 words, 20 Marks)

6. (b) Describe the role of accessibility and affordability in the food security of the developing world. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

6. (c) The environmental issues are not adequately addressed in the regional planning. Comment. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

7. (a) Suggest criteria, indicators, and techniques for delimitation of formal regions. ( 250 words, 20 Marks)

7. (b) Boundaries are important in geopolitics. Explain. What issues develop from the inclusionary and exclusionary aspects of borders? ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

7. (c) the Small number of mega-cities are playing a key role in the organization of global economics and culture. Explain. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

8. (a) Why is radicalism seen as major a paradigm shift in geography? Explain its causes, approaches, and criticism. ( 250 words, 20 Marks)

8. (b) Aging population has adverse social and economic consequences. Explain with examples. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

8. (c) Present a critical account of Alfred Weber's Theory of Industrial location. ( 150 words, 15 Marks)

Geography [ Paper-II] [ 3 hours 250 marks]


1. (a) On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the location of all the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of three locations whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 30 words for each entry: (2*10=20)

(i) Zero Valley

(ii) Khecheopalri Lake

(iii) Toranmal

(iv) Subarnarekha River

(v) Koderma

(vi) Sir Creek

(vii) Periyar Wildlife sanctuary

(viii) Peechi Dam

(ix) Digha Beach

(x) Pamban Island

(b) Discuss the geopolitical impact of the bilateral relationship between India and Bhutan. ( 150 words, 10 Marks)

भारत और भूटान के बीच द्विपक्षीय संबंधों के भू-राजनीतिक प्रभाव की विवेचना कीजिए।

(c) Discuss the economic significance of the volcanic soils of India. ( 150 words, 10 marks)

भारत की ज्वालामुखीय मिट्टियों के आर्थिक महत्व की विवेचना कीजिए ( 10 marks)

(d) Give a reasoned account of the difference between the sugar industry of North and Peninsular India. ( 150 words,10 Marks)

उत्तरी और प्रायद्वीपीय भारत के चीनी उद्योग के बीच अंतर का तर्क सहित वर्णन कीजिये। (10 Marks)

2. (a)  Landslide is a major problem in the Himalayan region. Discuss its causes and mitigation measures. ( 250 words, 20 marks)

हिमालयी क्षेत्र में भूस्खलन एक बड़ी समस्या है।  इसके कारणों  एवं अल्पीकरण के उपायों की विवेचना कीजिए।

2. (b) Appraise why drought is one of the most common climatic extremes in India( 150 words, 15 marks)

क्यों सूखा भारत में सबसे आम जलवायु चरम विषमताओं में से एक है ? मूल्यांकन कीजिए।

2. (c) Discuss the ecological and economic challenges of river linking in India. (150 words, 15 Marks)

भारत में नदी जोड़ने की पारिस्थितिकी और आर्थिक चुनौतियों की विवेचना कीजिये। 

3. (a) Discuss the importance of solar energy in the future economic development of India. ( 250 words, 20 Marks)

भारत के भावी आर्थिक विकास में सौर ऊर्जा के महत्व की विवेचना कीजिए।  ( 20 Marks)

3. (b) Critically examine the importance of the Smart Cities Programme for solving urban problems in India. (150 words,  15 Marks)


3. (c) Examine the significance of ecotourism in relation to socio-economic development and biodiversity conservation in India. (150 words, 15 marks)

4. (a) Discuss the reserves, distribution, and production of all varieties of coal in India. (250 words, 20 marks)

4. (b) Describe the salient features of the east-flowing rivers of India. (150 words, 15 marks)

4. (c) Critically examine the problems of Inter-State border disputes in India. (150 words, 15 marks)


5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: (10*5=50)

(a) Discuss the salient features of Project Tiger in India.

(b) Describe the problems of cloud burst in India giving suitable examples.

(c) Discuss the role of watershed management for soil and water conservation in hilly regions of India.

(d) Critically examine the relevance of Ravenstein’s law of population migration with reference to India.

(e) Discuss Ashok Mitra’s classification method of Indian cities.

6. (a) Explain the impact of tropical cyclones and western disturbances on the climate of India. (250 words, 20 marks)

   (b) Examine the critical issues of groundwater resources in India. (150 words, 15 marks)

    (d) Describe the structure and relief features of the Deccan Plateau. (150 words, 15 marks)

7. (a) Critically examine how the Panchayati Raj system is a catalyst in decentralized planning in India. (250 words, 20 marks)

    (b) Identify the major industrial corridors of India and discuss the characteristics of the Bengaluru-Mumbai Corridor. (150 words, 15 marks)

    (c) Assess the growth of multinational corporations in the liberalized economic environment of India. (150 words, 15 marks)

8. (a) Examine how information and communication technology has boosted the development of certain regions of India. (250 words, 20 marks)

    (b) Discuss the Command Area Development Programme and its impact on eliminating regional inequalities in India. (150 words, 15 marks)

    (c) Critically assess the status of the balance of trade in India and suggest some measures to combat the issues. (150 words, 15 marks)

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12 August 2023 at 13:16 ×

all que. ki solu de do na sir

Congrats bro Unknown you got PERTAMAX...! hehehehe...