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UPSC 2020 Geography Optional Question Paper| Solved

Geography( Paper-I)( 3 Hours 250 Marks):

1. Answer the following in about 150 words each:(10*5=50 marks)

(a) Write a Geographical note on the Halloween storm
(b) Why is mapping important for analyzing geo-hydrological investigations? Explain with relevant examples
(c) Marine resources are economically very significant. Discuss citing suitable examples.
(d) Which factors influence the growth of wild plants in India? Discuss their economic significance.

(e) Discuss the problems associated with the living environment in million-plus cities in India. How can these be managed?

2. (a) Write an essay on the evolution of continents and oceans using various theories and models.( 250 words, 20 marks)

 (b) Discuss the concept of Coral bleaching, its recovery, and macroalgal regime shifts due to this process. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

(c) Explain the currents of the North Atlantic ocean and their significant role in the climate of western Europe. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

3. (a) Explain how various factors influence the origin and development of the Indian monsoon system. ( 250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Explain the effects and causes of deforestation and its impact on the pattern of agriculture in India.  ( 150 words, 15 marks)

(c) Explain the characteristic features of frontogenesis and frontolysis.  ( 150 words, 15 marks)

4. (a) Discuss the problems of erosional surfaces and explain the different methods to identify them with suitable diagrams.  ( 250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Land use/Land cover and soil types influence forage quantity and quality in semi-arid regions of the world. Discuss with relevant examples.  ( 150 words, 15 marks) 

(c) Discuss the human response to and management of hazards and disasters in India.  ( 150 words, 15 marks)


5. Answer the following in about 150 words each: ( 10*5=50)

(a) Analyse India’s food security in the context of population growth.

(b) Identify the causes and effects of the energy crisis, and suggest suitable measures to solve the problem.

(c) Distinguish between mobility and migration. What are the causes and consequences of rural to urban migration in India?

(d) “Where economic growth is sustained over long time periods, its incidence works towards a progressive integration of the space economy.” Elucidate.

(e) Write a note on the relevance of Von Thunen’s agricultural location theory in the present context.

6. (a) Compare and contrast the Malthusian and Neo-Malthusian perspectives in the context of population growth, resource use, and environmental impact.  ( 250 words, 20 marks)

(b) “Land degradation is a threat to productivity and sustainable resource management” Explain with suitable examples from India.  ( 150 words, 15 marks)

(c) In the modern world, most of the frontiers have been replaced by boundaries. Explain the reasons.  ( 150 words, 15 marks)

7. (a) Discuss the concept of urban resilience in the context of planning for sustainable development with reference to towns and cities of India.  ( 250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Analyse the dynamics of industrial location in the metropolitan cities of India.  ( 150 words, 15 marks)

(c) Write an essay on gender equity and equality in India in the context of balanced human development.  ( 150 words, 15 marks)

8. (a) Discuss how and why Mackinder modified his concept of Pivot Area after the World Wars.  ( 250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Provide an account of world population transition in the context of fertility decline and socio-economic development.  ( 150 words, 15 marks)

(c) “Human ecology is the study of the mutual relationship of people and their environment both natural and social.” Discuss in detail using ecological concepts.  ( 150 words, 15 marks)

Geography( Paper-II) ( 3 hours 250 words)


1. (a) On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the location of all the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of three locations whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 30 words for each entry: (2*10=20)

(i) Vadhawan
(ii) Salkhan
(iii) Coorg
(iv) Mhow
(v) Umroi
(vi) Thoothukundi
(vii) Bargarh
(viii) Atal Tunnel
(ix) Guru Shikhar
(x) Bum La

1. (b) Climate change has unsettled the rhythm of seasons. Comment with examples and empirical evidence. ( 150 words, 10 marks)

1. (c) Discuss the method of crops residue management in rural India to reduce pollution. ( 150 words, 10 marks)

1. (d) Has the regional aspiration of the people of Jammu and Kashmir been addressed through the re-organization of the state? Make an assessment.( 150 words, 10 marks)

2. (a) Identifying areas covered under the tribal sum-plan, discuss the programmers initiated to address their problems. ( 250 words, 20 marks)

2. (b) Soil type in India, classified on the basis of color, possess specific chemical and mineral characteristics. Discuss. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

2. (c) The Pharmaceutical industry in India depend on the import of raw material. Evaluate this statement in view of the Indo-Chinese relationship. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

3. (a) India has opened up its space to private sectors for satellite-based activities. Critically examine its implications indicating the major security concerns. ( 250 words, 20 marks)

3. (b) Identify oilseeds producing areas in India and discuss the measure to promote the edible oil industry. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

(c) Give a reasoned geographical account of changing rural folk houses in India. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

4. (a) Border are development is an important national priority. What are the resilient steps needed for peaceful borders? ( 250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Stunting and wasting among children are major consequences of food insecurity. Discuss various schemes of the Government of India to address insecurity. Address these problems and their achievements. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

(c) The Essential Commodities (Amendment)Bill 2020 aims to deregulate the production, supply, and distribution of farm produce. Critically examine its spatial consequences. ( 150 words, 15 marks)


Q5.Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: (10 *5=50

5. (a) The success of Panchayati Raj depends upon the meaningful participation of people grassroots level. Examine. 

5. (b) Elucidate the benefits of neem coated urea scheme for Indian agriculture.

5. (c) Canal irrigation has led to monocropping in India. Explain with suitable examples.

5. (d) The pattern of growing ecological footprints is uneven in nature. Analyze with reference to land resources in India.

5. (e) Identify challenges faced by generative and parasitic towns in India and their possible remedies. 

6. (a) Digital Divide in India needs quick redressal to reduce regional disparity in development. Elaborate with suitable examples. ( 250 words, 20 marks)

6. (b) Avalanche is a major hazard in the Himalayas. What are its causes and mitigation measures? ( 150 words, 15 marks)

6. (c) The process of demographic transition is not uniform in India. Examine this statement in the context of demographic transition theory. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

7. (a) Demarcating the seismic zones of India, suggest suitable interventions required for the most sensitive seismic zones for sustainable human settlements. ( 250 words, 20 marks)

7. (b) What are the characteristics of Blue Flag certified beaches? Discuss their significance for beach tourism in India. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

7. (c) Urban sprawl around planned cities evolves leading to the emergence of squatter settlements. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such outgrowth. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

8. (a) Analyse the changing nature of workforce composition vis-à-vis the rural-urban divide in India. ( 250 words, 20 marks)

8. (b) Describe the economic, maritime, and strategic interests of India in the South China Sea. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

8. (c) What kind of skill promotion programs have been initiated for job deficient regions in India? Explain. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

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