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UPSC 2018 Geography Optional Question Paper[SOLVED]

 Geography[ Paper-I] [ 3Hours 250 marks]


Q1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: (10*5=50)

(a) "Landscape is a function of structure, process, and stage." Critique the statement.

(b) Explain the role of evaporation in the hydrologic cycle.

(c) Describe the causes and consequences of sea-level changes.

(d) Distinguish between intrazonal and azonal soils. Describe in brief the characteristics and importance of azonal soils.

Q2. (a) Evaluate how far Kober's geosynclinal theory explains the mountain building process. ( 250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Critically examine the basis and scheme of climatic classification proposed by G.T. Trewartha. (200 words, 15 marks)

(c) Discuss the objectives and principles of environmental education. Describe the basic concerns of formal and non-formal environmental education in India. (200 words, 15 marks)

Q3. (a) Explain the origin, progress, and retreat of the Indian monsoon and discuss its impact on the Indian economy. (250 words, 20 marks)


(b) "Geomorphological changes are largely responsible for environmental hazards in the Himalayan region." Comment with relevant examples. (200 words, 15 marks)

(c) "Controlling population growth is the sustainable solution to environmental problems." Express your views with suitable arguments. (200 words, 15 marks)

Q4. (a) Describe the potential marine energy resources with reference to their benefits, harvestability, and environmental impacts. (250 words, 20 marks)


(b) Explain the ecosystem approach to environmental management and highlight its advantages and disadvantages. (200 words, 15 marks)

(c) Discuss the causes of degradation of tropical rainforests and suggest remedial measures for their prevention, conservation, and development. (200 words, 15 marks)

Section B;

Q5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: (10 *5=50)

(a) "Geography is a contested and multiparadigm discipline with a strong euro-centricity that has only recently been challenged. " Comment.

(b) Discuss the degree of importance of transportation costs as a factor of Industrial location with respect to "footloose industries".

(c) Explain the concepts of "megalopolis" and "exopolis" with regard to the growth of cities indicating where the two can and do overlap.

(d) Write a note on "forward and backward linkages" in Perroux's thesis of economic growth and regional development.

(e) Outline briefly the "age of mass consumption" as described by Rostow in his "multi-stage theory of growth".


Q6. (a) "Areal differentiation has provided the theoretical justification for studying "region" and "regional geography"." Comment. (250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Citing examples from Asia and Europe, comment upon the contexts within which pronatalist, population policies are advanced. What could be the implications of these policies on women's workforce participation? (200 words, 15 marks)

(c) Comment upon the contributions of D.M. Smith in outlining "welfare" as a key focus in the geographies of social well-being. (200 words, 15 marks)

Q7. (a) "Famine is a social phenomenon rooted in institutional and political-economic arrangements, which determine access to food by different classes and strata." Comment. (250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Provide a brief outline of ideas related to the "sense of place" as propounded by Yi-Fu Tuan and Relph in the humanistic geography that emerged in the 1970s. (200 words, 15 marks)

(c) Elaborate upon the influence of Marxist philosophy on geographical research, outlining key themes addressed by Marxist geographers since the 1970s. (200 words, 15 marks)

Q8.(a) "Welfare geography emphasizes spatial inequality and territorial justice." Comment with reference to the main ideas and scope of the subfield. (250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Discuss critically the manner in which quantitative revolution provided the methodological foundation for models and modeling in geography. (200 words, 15 marks)

(c) Discuss in brief the main thesis in "Limit to Growth"(1972) and also provide a critique of the same. (200 words, 15 marks)

Geography[ Paper-II] [ 3hours 250 Marks)


1. (a) On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the location of all the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of three locations whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 30 words for each entry: (2*10=20)

(i) Shyok river

(ii) Mawlynnong

(iii) Shravasti

(iv) Kori creek

(v) Amarkantak

(vi) Ghatshila

(vii) Tawang

(viii) Neyyar

(ix) Dandeli

(x) Mulshi Lake

1. (b) Explain the unusual intensity of dust storms and thunderstorms across India in the pre-monsoon period of the year 2008. (150 words, 10 marks)

1. (c) Why setting up of Water Management Boards is a controversial issue in India? (150 words, 10 marks)

1. (d) Keeping the recent developments in view, how can the energy crisis of India be circumvented by harnessing non-conventional energy resources? (150 words, 10 marks)

2. (a) Distinguish the geographical aspects of the North-Western lava Plateau and Chotanagpur plateau of peninsular India. (250 words, 20 marks)


2. (b) Explain the contemporary agricultural scenario in the context of rapid urbanization in India. (200 words, 15 marks)

2. (c) Assess the suitability of Special Economic Zones(SEZs) for sustainable economic development in India. (200 words, 15 marks)

3. (a) Examine the ongoing process of agricultural diversification and its implications for food security in India. (250 words, 20 marks)

3. (b) Account for the persisting negative trade balance of India. (200 words, 15 marks)

3. (c) Critically assess the vanishing ethnic linguistic plurality of India. (200 words, 15 marks)

4. (a) Examine the driving forces of changing urban morphology of million-plus cities of India with suitable examples. (250 words, 20 marks)

4. (b) Discuss the emerging geo-political scenario of the Indian Ocean realm. (200 words, 15 marks)


4. (c) Give a critical account of region-specific constraints of sustainable tourism in India. (200 words, 15 marks)


5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: (10*5=50)

5. (a) Discuss the socio-economic problems associated with the left-behind families of international migrants from India.

5. (b) Explain the changing river courses and their impacts on the riparian population in India with suitable examples. 

5. (c) Make a critical appraisal of the factors affecting river water quality in India. 

5. (d) Examine the role of people's participation in successful decentralized planning in India.

5. (e) Describe the socio-spatial consequences of the recent Nipah viral encephalitis in India.

6. (a) Illustrate with suitable examples the endeavors undertaken in augmenting the conservation of water and vegetation in India. (250 words, 20 marks)

6. (b) Discuss the strategies for the integrated development of island territories in India. (200 words, 15 marks)

6. (c). Cross-border terrorism has implications for border area development in India. Examine it with suitable examples. (200 words, 15 marks)

7. (a) Explain the pipeline network across India and its impact on regional development. (250 words, 20 marks)

7. (b) Discuss the changing composition of international trade through major seaports of India. (200 words, 15 marks)

7. (c) Peri-urbanization has created enormous environmental problems. Discuss their causes and consequences with reference to the National Capital Region(N.C.R) of India. (200 words, 15 marks)

8. (a) Describe the changing regional morphology of rural settlements in India. (250 words, 20 marks)

8. (b) Startups may play important role in giving a fillip to economic growth in India. Illustrate with examples. (200 words, 15 marks)

8. (c) Is the land boundary of India with its neighboring countries a cultural divide or divided culture? Explain with suitable examples. (200 words, 15 marks)

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