UPSC 2019 Geography Optional Question Paper| Solved| Geography optional notes

Geography(Paper-I)(3 Hours 250 Marks)


1. Answer the following in about 150 words each:( 10*5=50)

(a) Describe Phreatic Eruptions and their Consequences.

(b) Explain the techniques to calculate potential evapotranspiration suggested by Thornthwaite.

(c) How are sandspits and Tombolos formed?

(d) Amensalism is a Biotic factor that determines the geographical limits of species. Explain.

(e) How do mountaineers constitute a threat to Mount Everest?

2. (a) Why is it necessary to conserve the genetic diversity of species? Do protected areas serve any useful purpose in this context? ( 250 words, 20 Marks)

(b) Compare and Contrast different types of plate boundaries. (150 words, 15 marks)
(c) Explain the nature of Urban Climate and its impact on Global Environmental Change. ( 150 words, 15 marks)
3. (a) Discuss in detail the Tri-cellular Model of Atmospheric Circulation. (250 words, 20 marks).
(b) How are soil acidity and alkalinity related to soil fertility? ( 150 words, 15 marks)
(c) "The web of life is seamless and the consequences of disruption to one part of the ecosystem ripple throughout the whole." 
4. (a). Discuss the methods of measuring the intensity and magnitude of earthquakes. How are seismic zones demarcated? ( 250 words, 20 marks)
(b) The impact of floods on life and property can be most effectively reduced by hazard mapping. Comment. ( 150 words, 15 marks)
(c) How are ocean waves formed? Distinguish between a wave of oscillation and a wave of translation. (150 words, 15 marks)

5. Answer the following in about 150 words each: ( 10 *5=50) 

(a) "A language originates at a particular place and diffuses to other locations through the migration of its speakers." Examine this statement in the context of language host spots and endangered language hot spots.
(b) Define stunting and wasting. Why are these more prevalent among children in developing countries?
(c) Explain the relationship between the net reproduction rate( NRR) and the true replacement level of the population.
(d) What are the natural regions? How are they different from planning regions?
(e) Discuss the genetic classification of boundaries suggested by Hartshorne.
6. (a) HDI has brought about a paradigm shift in the way people think about the development process. Critically examine the inherent limitations of HDI. (250 words, 20 marks)
(b) "A large-scale global shift in manufacturing is the outcome of deindustrialization in the developed world matched by industrialization in the developing world." Analyze this statement. ( 150 words, 15 marks)
(c) What do you mean by " Climate Migrants"? Suggest appropriate policies and programs for their resettlement. (150 words, 15 marks)
7. (a) What changes in the current planning, management, and governance of human settlements are needed to face the changing environment including climate change and disaster vulnerabilities in cities? (250 words, 20 marks)
(b) Globalization can often subsume folk culture. What are its positive and negative effects? ( 150 words, 15 marks)
(c) "Growth is not uniform in different places." Critically examine this statement in the context of the growth pole theory. (150 words, 15 marks)

8. (a) Distinguish between "isodapanes" and "isotims". Critically examine the least cost theory of Industrial location given by Alfred Weber. ( 250 words, 20 marks)

(b) Assess the challenges for countries with the largest shares of aged populations. ( 150 words, 15 marks).
(c) Examine the relevance of the "Rimland theory" in the contemporary world.( 150 words, 15 marks)


Geography( Paper-II) ( 3 hours 250 Marks)


1. (a) On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the location of all the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of three locations whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 30 words for each entry: ( 2*10=20)

(i) Lothal
(ii) Beas river
(iii) Chikhaldara
(iv) Narora
(v) Lengpui
(vi) Kuldiha wildlife sanctuary
(vii) Thenmala
(viii) Anamudi
(ix) Barren island
(x) Durgaduani creek

1. (b) Examine the Major Causes of Ground Water depletion in India. (150 words, 10 marks)

1. (c) Why is the Indian Monsoon Erratic in Nature? Explain. (150 words, 10 marks)
1. (d) Explain the significance of dry farming in drought-prone areas of India
2. (a) Correlate the agro-climatic zones with the agro-ecological regions of India. ( 250 words, 20 marks)
2. (b) Critically analyze the role of multinational corporations in India's economic development with suitable examples. ( 150 words, 15 marks)
2. (c) Discuss how watershed management has become a tool in the eradication of rural poverty in India. (150 words, 15 marks)

3. (a) Discuss the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides in agriculture and its impact on human health. (250 words, 20 marks)

3. (b). Examine ongoing space programs of India and their implications for national security in the future. (150 words, 15 marks)

3. (c) Discuss the rainfall pattern and correlate it with the spatial distribution of natural vegetation in India. ( 150 words, 15 marks).

4. (a) Discuss the political aspects of Himalaya. Explain how it has affected the geostrategy, geopolitics, and regional consciousness of Indian federalism. ( 250 words, 20 marks).

4. (b) Examine the development of information technology in India and its influences on work culture and society. ( 150 words, 15 marks)

4. (c) Explain the present status of age structure and availability of workforce in India. ( 150 words, 15 marks).


5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: ( 10 *5=50)

5. (a) Present the salient features of the west-flowing rivers of India.

5. (b) Discuss the problems of wildlife conservation and management in India.

5. (c) Correlate the price of land, vertical growth of cities, and the growth of slums in large cities of India. 
5. (d). Assess the importance of foot-loose industries in the development of backward regions in India. 
5. (e) Examine the problems of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood(GLOF) in India. 

6. (a) "Intrabasins linkages of rivers are more feasible economically, socially, and ecologically." Discuss with suitable examples from India. (250 words, 20 marks).

6. (b) Provide a reasoned account of emerging conurbations in India and explain with suitable examples the problems associated with it. (150 words, 15 marks)

6. (c) Explain the relevance of green tourism for the sustainable development of the mountain environment in India.  (150 words, 15 marks).

7. (a) Analyse the role of interstate migration in regional disparity in India. (250 works, 20 marks)

7. (b) Give a reasoned account of the high level of pollution in North Indian cities as compared to south Indian cities. (150 words, 15 marks)

7. (c) Analyze the incentive-oriented programs for removing regional imbalance in the socio-economic development of India.  (150 words, 15 marks)

8. (a) With special reference to India examine the changes in the nature and patterns of international trade. Mention the major influencing factors.  (250 words, 20 marks)

8. (b) Describe the altitudinal and spatial geo-environmental hazards in the Himalayas. (150 words, 15 marks).

8. (c) "India is emerging as the global power in relation to Indian ocean realms." Elaborate.  (150 words, 15 marks)

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