Alluvial soils | Classification of Indian Soil | UP-PCS | UPSC| Physical Features |GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

 Alluvial soil is depositional soil mainly formed by river deposition and wave deposition in coastal areas.

Alluvial soil region in India:
  • The entire northern plain is made up of Alluvial soil extending up to part of the Gujarat and Rajasthan region.
  • It is also found in the eastern coastal plain, particularly in the Delta of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Cauveri.
Alluvial soil distribution in India

Geological division of Alluvial soils in northern plains:
  • Bhabar
  • Terai
  • Banker
  • Khadar

Bhabhar:
  • It is a narrow belt located at the foothill of the Siwalik range or upper course of the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra rivers.
  • It is a form of alluvial fans.
  • It is characterstirix]zed by pebble and coarser materials.
  • It is not suitable for agriculture but highly suitable for natural vegetation such as big trees.
Terai:
  • It is south of the Bhabar belt ahs swampy areas.
  • It is rich in nitrogen but deficient in phosphoric acid.
  • It is suitable for both big trees, grasses, and a variety of crops.

Bangar or Old alluvial soils:
  • It has higher Kankar nodules. It is found away from the river channel.
Khadar or new alluvial soils:
  • khadar has finer particles than Kankar and it is most fertile and gets renewed each year by the flood.

Characteristics of alluvial soil:
  • 40% of the total areas of the country
  • Overall alluvial soil is very much fertile as it has an adequate proportion of Potash, Phosphorous, and lime( low nitrogen) which support a variety of crops such as sugarcane, paddy, wheat, pulse crops.
  • Due to high fertility, it is intensively cultivated and the region is densely populated.
  • Soil is porous or loamy in nature due to an equal proportion of sand and clay.
  • due to its loamy in nature, it has sufficient air and water which is good for vegetation.
  • Alluvial soil in drier areas is alkaline in nature.
It is a narrow belt located at the foothill of the Siwalik range or upper course of the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra rivers.
  • It is a form of alluvial fans.
  • It is characterstirix]zed by pebble and coarser materials.
  • It is not suitable for agriculture but highly suitable for natural vegetation such as big trees.
  • Terai:
    • It is south of the Bhabar belt ahs swampy areas.
    • It is rich in nitrogen but deficient in phosphoric acid.
    • It is suitable for both big trees, grasses, and a variety of crops.

    Bangar or Old alluvial soils:
    • It has higher Kankar nodules. It is found away from the river channel.
    Khadar or new alluvial soils:
    • khadar has finer particles than Kankar and it is most fertile and it gets renewed each year by the flood.

    Characteristics of alluvial soil:
    • 40% of the total areas of the country
    • Overall alluvial soil is very much fertile as it has an adequate proportion of Potash, Phosphorous, and lime( low nitrogen) which support a variety of crops such as sugarcane, paddy, wheat, pulse crops.
    • Due to high fertility, it is intensively cultivated and the region is densely populated.
    • Soil is porous or loamy in nature due to an equal proportion of sand and clay.
    • due to its loamy nature, it has sufficient air and water which is good for vegetation.
    • Alluvial soil in drier areas is alkaline in nature.

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