Saline Soils| Classification of Indian Soils | UP-PCS | UPSC| Physical Features |GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

 Table of Contents:

  • Formation of Saline soil
  • Distribution of Saline Soil in India
  • Characteristics of Saline soil

Formation of Saline soil

Saline soils are also known as Usara soil or infertile soil as it does not support any vegetation growth due to very high salt contents.
Saline soils formed in the following conditions:
  • Excessive irrigation with dry climatic conditions promotes capillary actions which lead to the accumulation of salt in the top layer of soils.
  • In poor drainage areas or waterlogging or swampy areas; soluble salt in water gets accumulated in the soil that leading to a change of alluvial soil or other soils into saline soils.
  • Intensive cultivation with excess uses of irrigation, alluvial soils becoming saline.
  • In the delta region or coastal region, soils get converted into saline soil due to the intrusion of seawater into the soil.

Distribution of Saline soil
  • Western Gujarat and Kuchchh areas: The southwest monsoon helps seawater to introduce into the soil.
  • Delta region of the eastern coast and Sundarbans: Intrusion of seawater promote saline soil.
  • Punjab and Harayana Region: Due to excess irrigation and poor drainage lead to alluvial soil into saline soil.
  • In dryland areas and using excess irrigation; due to capillary action salt gets deposited in the upper horizon of the soil and makes soil saline.
Saline Soils

Characteristics of saline soils:

The following are characteristics:

  • Saline soil contains sodium, potassium, and magnesium in a larger proportion. It is poor in nitrogen and calcium. Thus soils make infertile, do not support vegetation growth.
  • Structure: sandy to loamy.
  • Lack of nitrogen and calcium.
  • To overcome problems, Gypsum is added to solve the problems of salinity in soils.

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