Bring out the pattern of agriculture in Bihar and discuss the factors responsible for such a pattern| agriculture pattern in Bihar BPSC


Bring out the pattern of agriculture in Bihar and discuss the factors responsible for such a pattern. ( 64th BPSC 2019)


The pattern of agriculture means the proportion of areas for various crops during particular seasons. 60 % of the total geographical area of Bihar is under cultivation which is much higher than the national average of 42 %. In general, agriculture patterns are largely determined by rainfall, temperature, soils, relief, and technology.

Agriculture patterns in Bihar vary from season to season. There are three agriculture seasons in Bihar:

Kharif Crops:

  • The crops that are grown from June to October are called Kharif crops. 
  • Rice crop is the main crop in the Kharif season and it is grown in all the districts of Bihar. As per 2020-21 government data, the cropping area of the Paddy crop is 34.75 lakh hectares in Bihar.
  • Maize is the second-largest crop in Bihar during the Kharif season. 
  • The cropping area of the Maize crop is 4.25 lakh hectares in Bihar

Rabi Crops:

  • Wheat crops are major crops of the rabi season in Bihar. The cropping area of wheat is 24 lakh hectares in Bihar.
  • Bihar is the third-largest producer of Vegetables in India.

Zaid Crops:

  • Bihar is the largest producer of Lychee in India. 

Factors responsible for agriculture pattern in Bihar:

  • Bihar has a large cultivable area (60%) as almost all of it is plain and formed by the Ganges and other Himalayan rivers, with fertile alluvial soils predominate.
  • The forest cover in Bihar is very low (7%).
  • Bihar is situated in a sub-tropical climate. Due to heavy rainfall, humid climate, and fertile soil during the Kharif season, paddy is cultivated here.
  • Due to the perennial nature of the rivers and the availability of ample groundwater in the state, Bihar is the third-largest producer of vegetables and the fourth-largest producer of fruits among the states of India.

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