Soil Genesis(मिट्टी की उत्पत्ति)

What is soil?
Soil is a dynamic entity of the upper layer of earth which is always undergoing physical, chemical, and biological change. Soil is made up of matter existing in three stages that are solid, liquid, and gas. For the healthy growth of the plant, balance in all three states of matter is necessary.

Solid portion:  
  • The solid part of soil comprises Organic and inorganic substances. 
  • The Organic comprises living and dead organisms. 
  • Inorganic matters are produced by the weathering of rock. 

Liquid portion:
  • The soil has chemical solutions[ dissolved chemical and mineral] + water. 
  • Soil without water can not have these chemical reactions for weathering and erosion, nor can it support life.
Gases portion: 
  • It comes from the gases portion of the environment and also from biological and chemical activity. 

Soil Forming Factors:

Soil forming factor= are dependent on ( Parent rock, Landform, Climate, stages).

soil forming factor
soil-forming factor


Parent rock: 
  • Weathered material may be transported to other locations by a transporter agent like the river, wind, Glaciers, etc. 
  • Most of the soils do not form from the single parent rock; it comprises many parent soil.
  • Characteristics of soil may vary with different climatic conditions.

Landform: 
  • Thin soils are found on steep slopes and thick soils are found on a gentle slope

Climate: 
  • Climatic variables are moisture, temperature, water, and wind. 
  • Fast chemical and biological activities happen in areas in climatic conditions characterized by high moisture and temperature condition.

Stages: 
  • Soil formation is a dynamic process and it happened in stages. 
Soil forming process or soil genesis: 

The following process is involved in soil genesis.
Translocation: 
It involves the physical movement of materials. Under translocation: 
Leaching
  • leaching happens in humid areas. Soluble materials such as salt and minerals from the top are later removed and get deposited in the lower layer. 

Eluviation:
downwash of clay and other soluble materials in the lower deprived horizon.
Illuviation: 
it is the reverse of eluviation, it is when the accumulation and deposition of materials from upper layers leave behind an enriched horizon. 
Calcification: 
It occurred when the evaporation exceeds precipitation, the materials have an upward movement within the profile due to capillary action. 
Salinization/alkalization: 
Extreme evaporation brings the underground salts to the surface. This commonly happens with poor drainage but a good irrigation system.
for example, in some areas of Punjab and Rajasthan. 

Organic changes: 
These changes occur mainly on the surface and follow the following sequence,:
  • break down of the organic material by algae, fungi, insects, etc. 
  • Degrading - humidification- 
  • mineralization
Podzolization: 
This occurred in a cool and humid climate where bacteria activity is low. In this region, the thick dark organic surface having organic compounds can be translocated by heavy rainfall. 

Gleying:
this process took in waterlogged and anaerobic conditions. Some specialized bacteria flourish that use organic matter, this leads to a reduction of iron compounds.

Desilication or bacterization: 
This process is common in hot wet tropical and equatorial climates. Factors influencing soil formation Parent rock, climate, biotic activity, topography, time.


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