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Five Year Plans UPSC | Regional Development and Planning | Geography of India

First five year Plan( 1951-56):


  • Harrod-Domar Strategy ( economic growth gains by the level of saving and capital)

Main focus: 

  • Agriculture


  • K.N Raj

Three major problems: 

  • Refugee
  • Shortage of food
  • High Inflation
Community Development Program Started in the first five years and continues to the second five years as per Gandhian ideas for self-reliant villages. Under this program, the village community would choose to tackle local problems. The community development program failed due to the top-down approach; direction came from the top; communities were not interested to participate. 

Second five years plan( 1956-1961):


  • Mahalanobis Strategy. ( Industrial investment for domestic consumption)

Main focus: 

  • Basic and heavy industries
  • The heavy steel plant was set up in Durgapur, Bhilai, Rourkela
  • Huge import of Machine through the foreign loan
  • Shortage of forex reserve

Third five-year plan( 1961-66)

Economy passed the Rostow'take off stage and aim to become Self-reliant and self-generating economy stage.

Note: Rostow's five-stage economic development stage:

  • Traditional society
  • A precondition to taking off
  • Take off stage
  • Drive to maturity
  • The age of mass consumption


  • Balance to the growth of agriculture and industry
  • Panchayati Raj; recommended by BalwantaRai Mehata committee-
  • three tier
  • Village and black level elected
  • District level; advisory body under DC, MP, MLA
  • Gadgil Formula; center to state fund allocation; 30 % grant and 70 % loan; the state has to build up and strengthen planning machinery to utilize the fund.

The third five-year plan failed due to:

  • 1961: India-China War
  • 1965: Indo-Pakistan War
  • 1965-66: Severe drought

Due to war, development shifted to defense equipment.

3 one year plan from 1966 to 1969; 

  • It was also called a planned holiday.
  • Serious food shortage
  • HYV seed introduced

Fourth five-year plan( 1969-74):


  • Improving the condition of weaker section
Drought prone areas development, Hill areas development, and tribal areas development started

It also failed due to:

  • 1972: Oil crisis and Indo-Pakistan war

In war, the refusal to supply essential equipment forced planners to do more on self-reliance.

Twin objectives:

  • Growth with stability
  • Progressive achievement of self-reliance

Fifth five-year plan( 1974-79):

Final draft prepared by D. P Dhar


  • Removal of poverty or Garibi Hatao
  • Attainment of self-reliance


  • Trickle-down effect

1974-75; Command areas development for irrigation work

1978: Integrated Rural Development Program launched

Fifth years plan was terminated in 1978; one year before.

Two year rolling plan-1978 to 1980;

Concept; Gunnar Myrdal

Janta Government

Sixth five-year plan:( 1980-85)


  • Removal of poverty through the strengthening of infrastructure for both agriculture and industry

Focus on:

  • Increase national Income
  • Modernization of techniques
  • Poverty and unemployment

1980: Integrated Rural Development Program implementation started

Seventh five years plan( 1985-90)


  • Food, work, productivity


  • Agro-climatic zone 


  • Accelerated food grain production to increase employment opportunities

In this plan, the Indian economy crossed the " Hindu rate of growth " barrier; a concept given by Raj Krishnan

Gave the priority to private sectors over public sectors.

Achieved 6% growth against the 5 % target

Annual plan; 1990-92;

  • Due to political instability of balance of payment crisis

8th Five-year plan: 1992-1997

  • Fiscal and economic reforms 
  • The development of Human resources was the main focus
  • Decentralized planning, Panchayati raj revival
  • 73rd and 74th CAA
  • Decentralized planning
  • Bottom-up approach
  • Rao-Manmohan Singh's economic model

Ninth five-year plans( 1997 to 2002)


  • Growth with social justice and equality.
  • Watershed Management Started
  • Emphasized seven basic minimum services such as rural road, rural electrification, rural development, milk production, irrigation, school education, water supply, etc.

Tenth five years plan( 2002 to 2007)

  • Reduction in the incremental capital-output ratio
  • GDP growth achieved: 7.6 %

Eleventh five-year plan( 2007 to 2012)


  • Rapid and more Inclusive growth
  • Reduction in gender inequality
  • Reduction in total fertility rate: 2.1


Twelve five years plan( 2012-2014)


  • Faster sustainable and more inclusive growth
  • Target; Health indication.
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